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Yeast probiotics to boost fish gut health and improve feed efficiency

   日期:2022-01-14     来源:马克优    浏览:101    
核心提示:Gut health results from interactions of host-specific intrinsic characteristics with several factors such as environment
 Gut health results from interactions of host-specific intrinsic characteristics with several factors such as environment microbiome, nutritional status, feed quality, biotic and abiotic stress. Disturbances can be hard to predict and are observed as an acute occurrence or generated after long exposure to a single or a combination of stress factors.
肠道健康是由宿主特有的内在特征与环境微生物组、营养状况、饲料质量、生物和非生物应激等多种因素相互作用的结果。扰动可能很难预测,并被视为急性事件,或在长期暴露于单一或多种压力因素后产生。
Aquatic animals under farming conditions are constantly being exposed to stressors, with the risk to have gut health disrupted by dysbiosis caused by pathogenic bacteria, parasites, mucosa inflammatory process and impaired gut function induced by antinutritional factors, stress due to low water quality, pollutants, etc.
养殖条件下的水生动物经常受到应激源的影响,有可能因病原菌、寄生虫、粘膜炎症过程和抗营养因子引起的肠道功能受损、水质低引起的应激、污染物等而导致肠道健康受损。
In aquaculture, yeast postbiotics rich in bioactive compounds such as mannooligosaccharides, beta-glucans and nucleotides were subject of intense research in the past few decades, with a well-documented mode of action and benefits, especially targeting to improve innate immunity and increase disease resistance. On the other hand, feed supplementation with live yeast as a probiotic and its benefits on gut health has received less attention and remains an area with great potential to be furthered explored.
在水产养殖中,富含低聚甘露糖、β-葡聚糖和核苷酸等生物活性化合物的酵母益生元在过去几十年中受到了广泛的研究,其作用模式和益处已得到充分证明,尤其是针对改善先天免疫和增强抗病性。另一方面,用活酵母作为益生菌补充饲料及其对肠道健康的益处受到的关注较少,仍然是一个有待进一步探索的领域。
Yeast as a probiotic
Saccharomyces yeast is commonly found in marine and freshwater aquaculture environments in water, soil, plants, animals, or microorganisms. They can play different roles supporting aquatic environmental balance such as reducing ammonia, removal of toxic elements such as heavy metals, reduction of phenolic compounds and integrating the food chain serving as food to invertebrates and zooplankton. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a singlecell eucaryotic fungi widely used as a probiotic supplement to improve gut health and microbiota balance in both human and livestock. Potential interest for farmed aquatic animals relies on the ability of yeast to produce and secrete enzymes, nutrients and bioactive compounds that benefit the host and the beneficial bacteria in the gut. Its also relies on its ability to neutralize harmful toxins and produce antimicrobial substances to promote in the gut mechanisms of competitive exclusion with pathogens and stimulate innate immunity and enzymes of the antioxidant system.
酵母菌通常存在于海洋和淡水养殖环境中的水、土壤、植物、动物或微生物中。它们可以在支持水生环境平衡方面发挥不同的作用,如减少氨、去除重金属等有毒元素、减少酚类化合物以及整合食物链,作为无脊椎动物和浮游动物的食物。酿酒酵母是一种单细胞真核真菌,广泛用作益生菌补充剂,以改善人体和牲畜的肠道健康和微生物平衡。养殖水生动物的潜在兴趣取决于酵母产生和分泌酶、营养素和生物活性化合物的能力,这些物质有益于宿主和肠道中的有益细菌。它还依赖于其中和有害毒素和产生抗菌物质的能力,以促进肠道内与病原体的竞争排斥机制,并刺激先天免疫和抗氧化系统的酶。
Benefits in Nile tilapia
Ran et al. (2015) evaluated the effect of the supplementation of a commercial yeast probiotic Actisaf® Sc 47 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lesaffre proprietary strain NCYC Sc 47/ CNCM I-4407) on tilapia fingerings with 0.7 g of body weight fed for 48 days on diet SBM14 (with inclusion of 14% of soybean meal (SBM), 28% rapeseed meal (RSM) and 10% of fishmeal (FM)) and diet SBM28 (with 28% of SBM, 20% RSM and 5% of FM).
Ran等人(2015年)评估了添加商业酵母益生菌Actisaf®Sc 47(酿酒酵母,Lesaffre专有菌株NCYC Sc 47/CNCM I-4407)对罗非鱼鱼种的影响,罗非鱼鱼种在饲料SBM14(含14%的豆粕(SBM))中喂养48天,体重为0.7 g,28%的菜籽粕(RSM)和10%的鱼粉(FM)以及饲料SBM28(含28%的SBM、20%的RSM和5%的FM)。
Both diets were supplemented with 1 g/kg of Actisaf® Sc 47 top coated in the feed (diets SBM14 + Actisaf and SBM28 + Actisaf). Results indicated significant differences generated by the different formulas, where diet SBM28 outperformed diet SBM14. Yeast probiotic supplementation significantly improved microvilli length and density in the midgut, weight gain and final body weight in both diets (Fig. 1). Overall FCR was improved from 1.56 to 1.44 with yeast supplementation. Additionally, yeast probiotics promoted a significant increase in the abundance of the genus Lactococcus sp. in the allochthonous microbiota, and downregulated significantly the expression of stress related and inflammatory cytokines in the gut mucosa (hsp70: involved in protein folding, indicator of ER stress; il1β: proinflammatory cytokine; tgfβ: anti-inflammatory (Fig. 2)).
两种日粮均在饲料中添加1g/kg的Actisaf®Sc 47表层涂层(日粮SBM14+Actisaf和SBM28+Actisaf)。结果表明,不同配方奶粉产生的显著差异,其中SBM28配方奶粉优于SBM14配方奶粉。添加酵母益生菌显著改善了两种饮食中中肠的微绒毛长度和密度、体重增加和最终体重(图1)。添加酵母后,总FCR从1.56提高到1.44。此外,酵母益生菌促进异地微生物群中乳酸菌属的丰度显著增加,显著下调肠粘膜中应激相关和炎症细胞因子的表达(hsp70:参与蛋白质折叠,内质网应激的指标;il1β:促炎细胞因子;tgfβ:抗炎(图2))。

 
 
 
 
In a second trial, Ran et al. (2016) evaluated the impact of Actisaf® Sc 47 feed supplementation during 56 days on Nile tilapia fingerlings (9.8 g body weight) performance in high density (436 fish/m3) compared to a control condition (218 fish/m3). The higher density significantly reduced zootechnical performance and impacted negatively the gut morphology of the nonsupplemented group. Yeast probiotic supplementation generated positive improvements such as significant improvement of intestinal microvilli length, reduced hsp70 gene expression in the intestine compared to the high-density group, increased trypsin activity compared to both groups and reduced activity of gut alkaline phosphatase 24 h post-challenge by Aeromonas hydrophila. These results help to further elucidate the significant improvements on zootechnical performance and protein digestibility previously observed by Lara-Flores et al. (2003), who observed significant improvements supplementing Actisaf® Sc 47 (1 g/kg) on Nile tilapia fingerlings (0.15 g) reared at different densities (500 and 1,000 fish/m3) for 63 days (Fig. 3).
在第二次试验中,Ran等人(2016年)评估了在56天内添加Actisaf®Sc 47饲料对尼罗罗非鱼鱼种(9.8 g体重)在高密度(436条鱼/m3)下的性能的影响,与对照条件(218条鱼/m3)相比。高密度显著降低了动物技术性能,并对未补充组的肠道形态产生负面影响。与高密度组相比,添加酵母益生菌产生了积极的改善,例如显著改善了肠道微绒毛长度,减少了肠道中hsp70基因的表达,在嗜水气单胞菌攻击后24小时,与两组相比,胰蛋白酶活性增加,肠道碱性磷酸酶活性降低。这些结果有助于进一步阐明Lara Flores等人(2003)先前观察到的动物技术性能和蛋白质消化率的显著改善,世卫组织观察到,在以不同密度(500和1000条鱼/立方米)饲养63天的尼罗罗非鱼鱼苗(0.15克)上添加Actisaf®Sc 47(1克/千克)后,效果显著改善(图3)。
 
 
 Benefits in rainbow trout
Sheikhzadeh et al. (2015) observed benefits supplementing Actisaf® Sc 47 (1g/kg) on the rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss (12 g body weight) feeds for 60 days. Results demonstrated significant improvement of final body weight and improved innate immune parameters starting after 30 days of feeding. Serum activity of lysozyme and alternative complement system were improved, and total immunoglobulin count increased compared to the control group.
Fish were subsequently challenged with pathogenic Yersinia ruckeri (BCCM/LMG 3279) via intraperitoneal injection. The yeast probiotic supplementation delayed mortality evolution in the first day’s post-challenge, reaching at day 7 mortality of 30% compared to more than 50% in the control group.
Sheikhzadeh等人(2015年)观察到在虹鳟鱼虹鳟鱼(体重12克)饲料上补充Actisaf®Sc 47(1克/千克)60天的益处。结果表明,喂食30天后,最终体重显著改善,先天免疫参数改善。与对照组相比,溶菌酶和替代补体系统的血清活性提高,总免疫球蛋白计数增加。随后通过腹腔注射用致病性鲁氏耶尔森菌(BCCM/LMG 3279)攻击鱼类。补充酵母益生菌延迟了激发后第一天的死亡率演变,第7天死亡率达到30%,而对照组超过50%。
 
Farzad & Kuhn (2020) evaluated the inclusion of Actisaf® Sc 47 supplementation (3 g/kg) in juvenile rainbow trout (52.4 g) diets for 56 days with or without association with yeast postbiotics. Authors reported a positive trend to decrease feed conversion ratio by 20% and improvement on the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase.
Farzad&Kuhn(2020年)评估了在幼年虹鳟鱼(52.4 g)日粮中添加或不添加酵母益生元56天的ActivSaf®Sc 47补充剂(3 g/kg)的情况。作者报告了一个积极的趋势,即降低饲料转化率20%,提高抗氧化酶(如超氧化物歧化酶)的活性。
 
 
Benefits in pangasius
A recent trial conducted in Can Tho University (manuscript in preparation) evaluated Actisaf® Sc 47 supplementation (0.5 and 1 g/kg) on striped catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (36.4g) diets with 26% and 28% of crude protein for 56 days. No significant differences were observed in survival. An overall trend to achieve higher growth, final body weight, and improved feed conversion rate were observed in animals fed on 28% CP diet. The best FCR and protein efficiency ratio was achieved in the group fed on the 28% CP diet and supplemented with 0.5 g/kg of Actisaf® Sc 47. No clear effect on protein and dry matter in vivo apparent digestibility was observed. Actisaf significantly improved fiber digestibility at 1 g/kg inclusion in both diets, and lipid apparent digestibility on 28% CP diets (Fig. 4). Microvilli height of supplemented groups was also significantly higher compared to respective control groups. The best gut structure was achieved by supplementing both diets with 1 g/kg, or 0.5 g/kg in the 28% CP diet (Table 1).
最近在Can Tho大学进行的一项试验(准备中的手稿)评估了Actisaf®Sc 47在条纹鲶鱼Pangasianodon hypohthalmus(36.4g)日粮中添加26%和28%粗蛋白的56天效果(0.5和1 g/kg)。存活率无显著差异。在喂食28%粗蛋白饲料的动物中,观察到总体趋势是实现更高的生长、最终体重和饲料转化率。在喂食28%CP日粮并补充0.5 g/kg Actisaf®Sc 47的组中,FCR和蛋白质效率达到最佳。蛋白质和干物质在体内的表观消化率没有明显的影响。Actisaf显著提高了两种日粮中1g/kg的纤维消化率,以及28%粗蛋白日粮中的脂质表观消化率(图4)。补充组的微绒毛高度也显著高于相应的对照组。通过在这两种日粮中添加1 g/kg或28%粗蛋白日粮中添加0.5 g/kg,可获得最佳肠道结构(表1)。
 
 


 
 
Conclusion
Yeast probiotic Actisaf® Sc 47 is a sustainable and effective tool to improve gut health management and performance in aquaculture. Its unique characteristics can bring valuable functionalities to the feed, with potential to complement and creating synergies with other solutions. Further studies to better elucidate benefits and its impact on fish welfare and sustainability key indicators would be of high interest to the industry.
ongoing advances in production processes and yeast probiotic physical characteristics are expected to facilitate industrial-scale adoption of yeast probiotics in aquafeeds.
酵母益生菌Actisaf®Sc 47是一种可持续有效的工具,用于改善水产养殖中的肠道健康管理和性能。其独特的特性可以为提要带来有价值的功能,有可能与其他解决方案互补并产生协同效应。进一步研究更好地阐明效益及其对鱼类福利和可持续性关键指标的影响,将是业界高度关注的问题。
 
生产工艺和酵母益生菌物理特性的不断进步有望促进酵母益生菌在水产饲料中的工业规模应用。

Published on: 12/15/2021
Author/s : Phileo by Lesaffre
 
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