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欧洲近十年兽用抗生素销量下降40%以上

   日期:2021-12-10     来源:动物福利国际合作委员会ICCAW    作者:佚名    浏览:112    
核心提示:欧洲药品管理局(EMA)发布的关于欧洲兽用抗生素消费监测的年度报告显示,欧洲各国已经大幅减少了兽用抗生素的使用。根据2011-2020年25个国家的数据,2020年欧洲兽用抗生素的总销售额比2011年下降了43%。
       欧洲药品管理局(EMA)发布的关于欧洲兽用抗生素消费监测的年度报告显示,欧洲各国已经大幅减少了兽用抗生素的使用。根据2011-2020年25个国家的数据,2020年欧洲兽用抗生素的总销售额比2011年下降了43%。
 
  EMA兽医药品部负责人伊沃·克拉森说:“十年来,兽用抗生素销售的下降表明,欧盟的政策倡议,以及关于兽用抗生素谨慎使用的指导和国家倡议,正在产生积极的效果。”
 
  关键的人用抗生素的销量在2011年至2020年期间显著下降,在2020年仅占总销售额的6%。特别是,第三代和第四代头孢菌素的销量下降了33%,多粘菌素下降了76%,氟喹诺酮类药物下降了13%,其他喹诺酮类药物的销量下降了85%。这些类别包括用于治疗人类的严重细菌感染的抗生素,这些致病细菌对大多数其他抗生素治疗已产生耐药性。在动物生产中,应限制它们的使用,以保持其有效性,减轻公共卫生风险。
 
  此外,根据2021年欧洲疾病预防和控制中心(ECDC)、欧洲食品安全局(EFSA)和欧洲食品管理局(EMA)发布的第三份关于人类和食品生产动物的抗生素消费量和细菌耐药性发生率的综合分析的联合报告,在报告涵盖的时间范围内(2016-2018年),以每千克生物量进行评估,食品生产动物的抗生素总消耗量首次低于人类。虽然评估抗生素销售与动物和人类中产生的细菌耐药性之间关系较复杂,但报告的调查结果表明,进一步干预以减少抗生素消费将对细菌耐药性的发生产生有益影响,这突出表明有必要在人类和食品生产动物中促进抗生素的谨慎使用,并加强对疾病感染的控制和预防。
 
  为减少兽用抗生素销量的国家行动包括负责任和谨慎使用兽用抗生素的国家倡议、设定减量目标、限制在食品生产动物中使用某些抗生素、处方控制措施、意识宣传以及欧盟的指导等。
 
  原文如下:
  The annual report on the European Surveillance of Veterinary Antimicrobial Consumption published by EMA shows that European countries have substantially reduced the use of antimicrobials in animals. According to data from the 25 countries that provided input for the full 2011-2020 period, overall sales of veterinary antimicrobials in European countries were 43% lower in 2020 than in 2011.
 
  While an increase of 6% in overall sales for the 25 countries in 2020 compared to 2019 was registered, data for the next years are necessary to better understand this observation.
 
  “The decrease in sales of antimicrobials for use in animals over ten years shows that EU policy initiatives combined with guidance and national campaigns promoting prudent use of antimicrobials in animals are having a positive effect,” said Ivo Claassen, Head of EMA’s Veterinary Medicines Division.
 
  Sales of those antimicrobials that are considered critically important in human medicine, decreased noticeably between 2011 and 2020 and accounted for only 6% of total sales in 2020. In particular, sales of third- and fourth- generation cephalosporins dropped by 33%, polymyxins by 76%, fluoroquinolones by 13% and sales of other quinolones dropped by 85%. These classes include antimicrobials used to treat serious infections in humans that are caused by bacteria resistant to most other antimicrobial treatments. In animals, they should be used with restrictions in order to preserve their effectiveness and mitigate the risk to public health, as indicated in the Antimicrobial Advice Ad Hoc Expert Group (AMEG) categorisation.
 
  The eleventh ESVAC report presents data from 30 EU/EEA countries (including the UK as an EU Member State during the calendar years covered in the report) and Switzerland. All participating countries voluntarily provided information on sales of veterinary antimicrobial medicinal products. In order to present more recent data, and in preparation for the timelines for the reporting of sales and use data for antimicrobials in animals as required by Regulation (EU) 2019/6, data for both 2019 and 2020 were collected and presented in this ESVAC report.
 
  For each of the participating countries there is a separate section presenting sales trends by antimicrobial class. Some countries have described their main activities to combat antimicrobial resistance and how these activities have contributed to the observed changes in sales in their country. These measures include national action plans, national campaigns for prudent use of antimicrobials in animals, restrictions on use of certain antimicrobials in food-producing animals, or measures to control prescription of antimicrobials in animals.
 
The ESVAC project was launched by EMA in September 2009 following a request from the European Commission. Since then, the Agency has coordinated and supported European countries in establishing the standardised and harmonised reporting on the volume of sales of veterinary antimicrobial medicinal products. The ESVAC report is published annually and is used as a reference source of information for scientists, veterinarians and other health professionals, risk assessors and policy makers in the EU Member States on the topic of antimicrobial resistance. Under Regulation (EU) 2019/6, reporting of sales and use data for antimicrobials in animals will become a legal obligation for EU Member States and the Agency. The new requirements will apply to data from 2023 onwards. 
 
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